Metering & Measurement

Addressing Sealing Challenges Associated with Smart Meters

Smart gas meters enable companies, households and municipalities to remotely access data and device functionality through a network, such as Wi-Fi, a portal or a cellular phone network.

Smart Tech Takes Aim at U.S. Methane Emissions

(P&GJ) — It’s hardly surprising that major gas leaks hit international headlines. Known as super-emitter events, these leaks cause plumes of methane to escape into our atmosphere — sometimes for days on end. However, these leaks are often spotted by satellites orbiting our planet before they are even known about on Earth.

Emerging Threats of Climate Change, Vandalism

(P&GJ) — Pipeline integrity management systems (PIMS) are now in common practice, driven by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) requirements in the U.S. In June 2022, PHMSA updated an advisory bulletin on earth movement and geohazards, to monitor changing weather patterns and consider the risk posed by climate change.

Paradigm Shifts in Natural Gas Measurement, Maintenance

(P&GJ) — What drives paradigm shifts? Are paradigm shifts in industry the result of changes in behavior which lead to technology innovation, or does technology innovation precede paradigm shifts in behavior? This existential “what came first, the chicken or the egg” question may not have a universal answer, but in mature, risk averse, and regulated industries, the answer is almost universally the latter.

Plugging the Leak: Tackling Methane Emissions

(P&GJ) — The oil and gas industry is heavily regulated by a number of governing bodies, including the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, to ensure pipelines run efficiently and safely. However, no matter how controlled operations are, toxic vapors from fugitive emissions continue to be a problem.

Non-Contact, Drone-Based Technology for Movement Assessment

(P&GJ) — Based on its R&D experience, Skipper NDT decided in 2019 to address pipeline geolocation and strain assessment using UAS. This effort has provided a 2.2-kg and a 160-cm wide embedded system that can be easily mounted on any UAS.

Residual Stress in Predicted Failure Pressure Calculation—Part 2

(P&GJ) — An objective was to determine residual stress values corresponding to target probabilities, such as the 90th percentile. Every reference reviewed reported maximum stress levels, but only one-third of the references presented other residual stresses as they vary with position in the pipe.

Study Finds Growth Within Thermal Flowmeter Market

(P&GJ) — Thermal flowmeters are riding the surge of gas flow measurement in both renewable and traditional natural gas applications, according to a new study from Flow Research, “The World Market for Thermal Flowmeters.”

Challenges of Converting Pipelines to Hydrogen Service

(P&GJ) — ASME B31.8, ASME B31.4, and CSA Z662 have well-deserved international reputations as best-in-class, evidenced by their frequent reference by documents within other jurisdictions. However, the standards don't contain explicit requirements to address the design, construction and operational challenges presented by transporting gaseous hydrogen at transmission pressures.

PLIDCO Introduces Hydrogen-Compatible Fittings for Pipeline Maintenance and Repairs

(P&GJ) — The Pipe Line Development Company (PLIDCO) has launched a new range of products for use with hydrogen pipelines in response to the emerging transition toward hydrogen and other alternative energy sources.

TC Energy's Coastal GasLink Pipeline Fined for Environmental Non-Compliance

British Columbia has fined Coastal GasLink, the natural gas pipeline being built by TC Energy, $256,810 for non-compliance with environmental regulations, the Canadian province said on Thursday.

How Emissions Are Measured: Gas Concentration vs. Emission Rate

(P&GJ) — The U.S. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) proposed a rule in May that included significant measures to reduce emissions from pipelines and other midstream infrastructure.

Fatigue, Burst Tests Among Best Ways Assess Pipeline Welds

(P&GJ) — All over the world, the pipelines of large diameter and relatively thin wall thickness are used to transport hydrocarbons. These pipelines or piping systems are usually comprised of girth welded joints.

Residual Stress in Predicted Failure Pressure Calculation

(P&GJ) — Pipeline safety regulations require performing a calculation of the predicted failure pressure (PFP) of defects as part of an engineering critical assessment. Whether to include residual stress from pipe manufacturing, and selecting the magnitude of residual stress, can significantly affect the outcome of the PFP calculation. Guidance for accounting for residual stress is inconsistent.

Criteria to Consider in Selecting Water Transfer Flow Meters

(P&GJ) — The oil and gas industry contains a complex number of flow applications, featuring a myriad of fluids and gases that challenge even the toughest of flow instrumentation. So, choosing the right flow meter for a water transfer application should be straightforward in comparison … right?

Sudden Decompression: When the Pressure Gets Released

(P&GJ) — While many integrity management techniques attempt to detect flaws in the early stages, the potential always exists for a defect to initiate a running fracture along the length of a pipe. Cracks can be initiated by, for example, excavation damage, corrosion, or ground movements and may not provide any early warning.

Strengthening the Bond with Reliable Structural Adhesives

(P&GJ) — Most industrial maintenance or repair procedures involve welding or the use of mechanical fasteners as these can be perceived as easy and quick. However, while these procedures might initially seem to correct the issue but may cause more harm than good.

Developments in Custody Transfer Metering of Natural Gas

(P&GJ) — Natural gas has become an even more important energy source as the world looks to transition away from coal-fired power plants. Natural gas emits about half of the carbon emissions as coal, so it has many countries looking to adopt it as a larger part of their energy infrastructure.

Managing Lost and Unaccounted for Gas Volumes

(P&GJ) — Lost and unaccounted for (LAUF) gas is a calculated value that compares the amount of gas coming into a system (purchased) to the amount of gas leaving that system (sold or otherwise accounted for). Although LAUF is often equated to leaking pipes and equipment, leaks generally only represent a small portion of the value.

Importance of Moisture Analysis in Pipeline Transportation

(P&GJ) — Nearly every substance is affected by moisture, which can alter physical, chemical and electrical properties. When transporting hydrocarbons such as natural gas, the presence of moisture in the pressurized stream can create serious problems.

Why Flowmeter Calibration Sometimes Lacks Accuracy

(P&GJ) — The oil and gas industry appears to be favoring a move toward using “newer” and more “advanced” flow measurement technologies, such as ultrasonic and Coriolis devices as an alternative to turbine and positive displacement meters.

Detecting Leaks Using Remote Sensing Pipeline Monitoring

(P&GJ) — Pipelines are incredibly valuable assets for the energy and resources industry. Not only are they the safest way to move petroleum and other products, but they are also the most cost-effective and sustainable option to do so.

Practical Approach to Critical Assessments and Evaluating Pipelines

(P&GJ) — Engineering Critical Assessments (ECA) have been incorporated into United States pipeline safety regulations1 as a means for reconfirming the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for onshore steel gas transmission pipelines, while engineering assessments (EA) have been a longstanding method for proving consistent conclusions and recommendations across a variety of situations in accordance with the guidance in Canadian standard CSA Z662:19.

Value of Advanced Sensor Capabilities in Pipeline Management

(P&GJ) — For companies in the energy sector, optimizing systems and processes can bring as much growth as does innovating new products and services. Such optimization typically involves eliminating inefficient or unreliable steps in business systems and processes – a practice sometimes referred to as “getting the barnacles off the boat.”

Pig Removal: Recovering an Obstruction in Pressurized 48-Inch Pipeline

(P&GJ) —Following the completion of an offshore pipeline isolation project, STATS were asked by the client if they could offer a solution to a problem of an obstruction in their 48-inch gas export pipeline. During routine launching of an inline inspection tool, a slipper tray was accidently carried into the pipeline and lodged in the first pipeline bend, above grade, about 39 meters from the launcher door.

Offshore Pipeline Design for CCUS

(P&GJ) — Design and construction of CO2 pipelines are similar to natural gas transmission pipelines. However, there are differences like: thermodynamic modeling, blow down modeling, specifying the maximum water content, pipeline fracture propagation control, use of elastomer materials and performing a quantitative risk assessment, mainly related to release modeling and defining the allowable exposure limits. These factors require special attention for CO2 pipelines, when compared with natural gas.

Control Rooms: Achieving SCADA Operational Readiness, Compliance

(P&GJ) — Implementing a comprehensive control room management (CRM) plan in today’s energy market can be a challenging task in that integrating it with modern supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems adds layers of complexity to the project’s implementation and compliance requirements.

Tech Notes: Unpiggable In-Line Inspection Completed in South America

(P&GJ) — A team of Dexon pipeline engineers recently completed the inspection of a 20-mile (32-km), 3-inch diameter unpiggable or “challenging” underground petrochemical distribution pipeline, running from an onshore processing facility to a port on the South American coast.

Learning to Manage Risk of Over-Pressurizing Gas Pipelines

(P&GJ) — According to data from the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2020, the world consumed 3.7 Tcf of natural gas. In other words, nearly 10 billion cubic meters of natural gas was transported daily from production sites to homes, businesses, and power plants worldwide through pipelines spread across millions of miles. Most of these pipelines operate underground, 24/7, quietly delivering a vital service to people across continents.

Being Certain of Flow Measurement Meter Uncertainty

For many years, the oil and gas industry has widely believed that the production test separator gives the most accurate flow rate measurements. However, realistically, it’s unlikely to be used because of the sheer size of a separator, which creates mobility issues such as the need to lift it with cranes and a requirement for ruggedized equipment for shocks and vibrations.