June 2019, Vol. 246, No. 6


Modeling and Prediction of Black Powder Erosion of Gas Pipelines

By Ehab Elsaadawy and A.M. El-Sherik, Saudi Aramco, Research & Development Center, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia    Black powder is composed of different forms of iron sulfide (FeS), iron oxides (Fe3O4, FeOOH) and iron carbonate (FeCO3), mechanically mixed or chemically combined with any number of contaminants, such as salts, sand, liquid hydrocarbons, metal debris, and even naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM).   Figure 1a: Black powder particles. Courtesy of Saudi Aramco Figure 1b: Carbon steel control valve cage that was eroded by black powder after 45 days in service. Courtesy

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