July 2018, Vol. 245, No. 7


Designing of Skin Effect Current Traced Cross-Country Pipelines

By Tittu Alagu and Koya Venkata Reddy, FACT Engineering and Design Organization, Kerala, India Growing energy demand, coupled with the availability of sour and heavy crude, and the more conscious environmental regulations are driving refineries across the globe to enhance their facilities to process sour and heavy crude, and produce higher value middle distillates and end products. This spurs demand for greater storage capacity for crude, as well as petroleum products handling terminals and the need for transportation of high viscous crude, high pour fuel oils and molten sulfur in liquid form. With this comes the necessity of heat tracing system. The term heat-tracing refers to the contin

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